Facing the COVID Pandemic in the Heat of Summer

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As Japan’s annual June monsoon breaks up and high summer approaches, Nikkei News (Nikkei.com) reports on June 28 that a recent survey by medical instruments maker Tanita shows that over 75% of Japanese will continue to wear masks throughout the hot months.

 

Much of the Japanese archipelago experiences stifling heat and humidity from early July thru mid-September, making heat stroke and related illnesses a topic of national concern in the summer season.
The same survey reports that 60.7% of those surveyed intend to wear masks even when temperatures exceed 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit), and that 45% said they would wear masks while jogging and doing other types of exercise.

 

The survey notes that Japan’s Ministry of Health recommends removing masks in hot conditions, when adequate social distancing can be maintained to protect from heat stroke, etc.   45% of those surveyed said they were not aware of the Ministry’s recommendation.  (Deaths have already been reported among those exercising with masks.)

 

The Tanita survey was directed at Japanese aged 15 – 69 years.

Modern Tatami Design

Pawprints for Petlovers?

Have you ever dreamed of building a Japanese tatami room in your own home?  A tatami room is more than just a beautiful accent to your home’s interior; it’s a personal expression of who you are.

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Photo by Tatami Kobo Noguchi. See products at https://i-love-tatami.com/

Genuine tatami mats are made of igusa, Japanese rush, woven and stretched over tightly bound straw wadding, and they are always adorned with a thin strip of fancy border cloth. Though it is the natural padding and rush cover that make the tatami so comfortable and healthy, it is this border fabric – the tatami-beri, as it is called – that gives each tatami its special look.

These ornately patterned strips of cloth can be made of cotton, rayon or synthetic textile, and are sewn with durable colored thread (often of gold color) in jacquard relief that will never fray or fade. Although there are countless traditional patterns for the tatami ‘hem’, recently the rather monomaniacal Japanese are designing all kinds of new themes – one of the more popular being paw prints for pet lovers (see below.) So remember, if you decide to create a tatami room in your home, choose a motif that reflects your ‘beri’ taste and lifestyle!  (Believe me, if you can think of of a particular hem design, I’m sure Japan’s tatami makers can create it!)

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The Motomachi Buddha of Oita

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A Fading Beauty in Stone

Oita prefecture is the unrivaled heartland of Japan’s magaibutsu (Buddhist stone reliefs.)  While the old fief of Bungo is famous today for its plentiful hot springs (onsen), it is also home – somewhat mysteriously – to the largest number of lithic carvings in the country. Included among these are the twelfth-century national treasures of Usuki, in the south of the prefecture.

A Little-known Urban Relic

I recently went in search of one of Oita’s lesser-known reliefs, the Motomachi sekibutsu (stone Buddha.) Unlike most of the region’s carvings, which are found outside of small towns in the countryside, this stone deity is located in Oita City suburb of Furugo.  But don’t ask a local for directions to it; this neighborhood, thought to have been the capital of this land more than a thousand years ago, is a long walk from the central station, and hardly a well-known tourist destination.

I went there because longish walks attract me, and soaking in hot springs is nice, but not my raison d’être.  To my mind, pondering a thousand year-old work of art adds a bit of dimension to the day.

The Setting

The Motomachi relief is housed in a temple-like shelter on a dead-end street just a stone’s throw from the tracks of the Kyudai railway.  There isn’t much around, houses and a highway, though just around the corner is an old tumulus (but don’t expect much there.) As you enter through the gate and approach the shelter you notice to the right an exposed stone cliff; it appears that carvings might have once adorned this outcropping, but are now gone.  On the double doors before you hangs a sign that says they shall be kept shut; but the doors are unlocked, and there is no fee to enter.

The Characters in Question

Inside the doors is the central carving of the Yakushi Buddha.  It is nearly three meters in height, larger than most reliefs, with a face quite serene but also sadly deteriorated. According to the literature the damage to the carving is the work of salts that have soaked into the volcanic rock over the years.

 

 

Yet it is surprising that so much of the central figure still exists; the attendant deities on either side, Fudo Myoo (the Warrior King) and his disciples Cetaka and Kongara, on the right, and Bishamon (the God of Wealth), Kissho and Benzaiten (I think), on the left, are largely disintegrated, far beyond the point of restoration.  (Nor can I understand how the identities of the deities on the left were construed; they are no more than fragmented, ghost-like outlines on the stone.)

An Enduring Image

The oldest photo of the central (Yakushi Buddha) figure, dating from 1915, shows it protected within an open shed under a bulrush roof.  Indications are that as early the Edo period efforts were made to protect the central figure, with plaster added in the Meiji or Taisho era to repair the worst damage.  Still, it is amazing that the original carving endured as well as it did for so long; the work is believed to date from the middle to late Heian period (795 – 1185), and clearly reflects the Jocho school of carving, with obvious similarities to Jocho’s Amida Buddha of the Houou-do (Phoenix Hall at Byodo-in.)

A Treasure Worth Preserving

In recent decades concerted efforts have been made to save this treasure from further deterioration, including the construction of tunnels under the surrounding rock to divert water, and the injection of resins into the carving itself to slow its disintegration. Sensors have been placed on the effigy, as well, to detect and record changes in the rock substrates. In 2012, UNESCO designated the site for further study and preservation.

Once a Splendid Thing

Yet it appears that nothing will stop the continued dissolution of this old religious icon, which must have been a splendid sight for several centuries after its creation.  In those days there would have been nothing to block an expansive view of the wide Oita River and distant mountain ranges beyond.  Given the natural positioning of the figures, and the unique mise-en-scène, the entire stone retinue would have appeared fluid and lifelike.  Among the many reliefs of Oita, it was probably once the most beautiful of all.

The Motomachi magaibutsu is a 40-minute walk from Oita Station, or a 16-minute walk from Furugo Station (but not many trains stop here.)  If you are good with the bus system it is a two-minute walk from Yakushido stop.  Use your GPS to locate ‘Motomachi Sekibutsu’; hopefully your internet connection is good.

 

 

The Thatched Roof Farmhouses of Tamba

Although thatch is the traditional roofing material of many Japanese structures, it is most often seen today on homes in Japan’s remote rural villages. Well-preserved hamlets such as Shirakawa-go have become popular destinations for tourists seeking a unique lodging experience.  One of the greatest concentrations of thatched-roof dwellings in Japan is found in the Kyoto district of Tamba.

For thousands of years, the homes of Tamba were roofed with kaya (a term for miscanthus, bulrush, and pampas grass), or wara (straw harvested from rice or other grains), both materials readily available in and around farms. Not only was it free; after serving for years to protect the home, it could be returned to the fields as compost.

While thatch was also widely used as roofing material in Europe and England, the Japanese thatched roof has many characteristics that make it unique. Most notably, the rush reed – preferred over straw for its greater longevity and insulating properties – is bound to bamboo crosspieces to erect a steeply-pitched, sometimes slightly curved roof. This sharply-angled roof was essential in a land of frequent rains and heavy snowfall.

As mentioned, the commonly used kaya lasted much longer than straw, due to its higher oil content, but it offered another important advantage to the Japanese dwelling; the hollow stems of the rush provided excellent insulation in the hot season. This consideration cannot be over-emphasized. For instance, the homes of Tamba are oriented with their gables facing into the prevailing valley breezes, for optimal ventilation, a further measure to keep them cool throughout the hottest summer months.

The Japanese thatched-roof farmhouse is a testimony to the sustainable culture of rural Japan. For anyone interested in this subject a day-trip to Kyoto Tamba, where the craft of thatching lives on, is highly recommended.

The Kofun Dilemma

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When archaeologists recently opened a 4,400 year-old tomb in Egypt, revealing its beautiful reliefs to a curious world, there was no outcry against the desecration of someone’s final resting place, no concern about an eternal journey being rudely interrupted by 21st century antiquities hunters. Egyptian tomb exploration has been a form of world entertainment for a long time.

Not so with the royal tombs and tumuli of Japan. Today in Japan almost no archeological investigations of the large kofun (burial mounds) are allowed, even though these sites might provide significant insights into the life and development of Japan’s early Yamato civilization (250-710AD.) The reason? The Imperial Household Agency controls all access to these tombs, and forbids it.

It Wasn’t Always the Case

There have been investigations of Japanese tombs (including ones presumed to be of imperial descent) in the past, and these excavations have been of great value to the study of early Japanese culture. Often, the evidence unearthed predates the earliest extant historical records, which are in any case of questionable historical facticity.

One of the most remarkable discoveries was made at the Takamatsuzuka Kofun, which was excavated in 1972.

 

Takamatsuzuka – A Farmer Strikes Gold

Discovered in the village of Asuka by a farmer who hit quarried stone while digging into a hillock, this modest tumulus was excavated without much fanfare by a local Archaeological Institute. In spite of being in a cluster of significant tulumi, and though it was thought for centuries to be the tomb of Emperor Monmu, no one moved to halt the work.

Within a few days, researchers had revealed a narrow stone crypt, which medieval thieves had chiseled into some 700-800 year ago. The stone chamber still contained bronze and iron artifacts, but also something quite unexpected – plastered walls with well-preserved frescoes: detailed color images of a dragon, a tiger, a mythical tortoise, and groups of men and women dressed in the fashion of the times; the moon and sun were rendered in silver and gold flake, and Chinese constellations adorned the ceiling.

Nothing in the vault, including the remains, proved definitively who was laid to rest there, but it was clearly not Emperor Monmu. In any case, after preservation work was completed, higher authorities sealed the tomb, and it has never since been reopened.

 

Illuminating Finds, and a New Royal Dig

While the Takamatsuzuka crypt left many questions unanswered, all agree that its discovery aimed a beam of light upon the influences and beliefs of Japanese nobles of the late 7th to early 8th centuries. Its contents have engendered speculation and debate ever since. And it has begged a much bigger question: What might the undisturbed crypt of a real emperor reveal about the past?

Maybe Just a Peek?

In October, 2018, a rare exception to the policy of no intrusion on royal burial grounds was made at the Daisen Tumulus, Japan’s largest burial mound.

The Daisen Tumulus was constructed in the early to mid 5th century, and is the presumed resting place of Emperor Nintoku. Under the auspices of Sakai City and the Imperial Household Agency, archaeologists are now digging at this famous keyhole-shaped mound, which covers an area nearly twice as large as the great pyramid of Cheops, Egypt. The Daisen mound is over 800 meters long and over 600 wide, and was originally surrounded by three moats of different heights.

To date, researchers have laid bare stonework and clay cylinders, known as haniwa, at just the edge of the southerly, squared end of the mound. This is a very long way from the presumed crypt of Emperor Nintoku, and is unlikely to shed much new light on the mysteries of early Japanese civilization. But we shall see.

 

 

For now, they rest in peace

Like the tombs of Egypt, and burial sites throughout the world, Japan’s large tumuli were looted centuries ago. A bronze mirror from the Daisen mound, possibly cast in China, has been owned by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts for many years, having been acquired in Kyoto in 1908.

But while the Imperial Household Agency might fear the removal of more artifacts, by prohibiting investigation of the tombs it also effectively protects Imperial history from any inconvenient revelations. Whether this is intended or not, it means many intriguing questions about Japan’s earliest influences will remain unanswered.

The Final Say

But suppose that somewhere in Japan, in the tomb of a greater or lesser Yamato king, a telling trove of artifacts lies undisturbed. It seems quite likely that such treasures exist, either because they have never been found, or because they have been protected.

Then this: as much as we would like to examine them, and know their provenance, is our old habit of digging into tombs really the right thing to do? Should our thirst for knowledge trump our respect for the dead?

Hmm. For now, the Imperial Household Agency has the final say on that.

 

Sources: 古都飛鳥保存財団 (Kotou Asuka Hozon Zaidan), Asashi.com, Mainichi.com, ja.widipedia.org

Note:

The Culture of Yamato

For a period of over 400 years Japan’s royalty and nobles were buried in tumuli, or large burial mounds. This period in Japan’s history spans both the Kofun (Tumulus) Period (250 – 538AD) and the Asuka Period (538 – 710AD), and is best thought of collectively as the Yamato period.

Though Buddhism was introduced to Japan during the 6th century, it did not take the country by storm. For hundreds of years Japan remained largely an animist, with royalty much under the influence of the court cultures of Korea and China – as the Takamatsuzuka frescoes indicate.

Imagine the world of King Arthur’s England, obsessed with magic, demons and warfare, engaged in tenuous trade with distant empires – some crumbling, some greater than itself. This was the Japan of the Yamato period.

The Roofer

Have you ever looked at a Japanese tile roof and thought “what a fine thing!” Just kidding. I have, for much of my life.

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This month Yamamoto Kiyokazu, the founder of roof tile manufacturer Yamamoto Kawara Co., Ltd., passed away at the age of 86. He was the master foreman on the large-scale roof restorations of such historical structures as Todai-ji Temple (Nara), and Himeji Castle (Hyogo.) In his position as touryou (棟梁), a term composed of the characters for roof ridge pole and beams, he was the man at the top of these operations.

This was important work.  These and other restorations he supervised, such as Houryu-ji Temple (Nara), which is one of the oldest wooden buildings in the world, are designated world heritage sites, and among Japan’s greatest treasures.

Mr. Yamamoto, you had quite the resume!

Sometimes, when I look up at a fine Japanese roof, I ask myself “How did it get there?” and “Who will take care of it in fifty or a hundred years?”

Well, this master roofer worked hard to promote an appreciation of tile roofing, spending many years of his life lecturing on the subject around Japan.

 

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Thank you, Mr. Yamamoto.

The Spirit of Benkei

Of Ramen and Road Warriors

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Here is a story steeped in legend; a tale of loyalty, gratitude and – I vouchsafe it – some very good noodles.

Just Another Lonely Noodle Shop

Many years ago there was a ramen shop in Horikiri that brewed an especially rich pork bone broth. The place had a following – truckers, night owls and the like – but traffic was never heavy.  It was on the outskirts of town, far from the nearest station, with nothing separating its counter from the street but line of rickety stools, an old noren and the sidewalk. Like the famous warrior monk of old, the shop was named Benkei.

A Lucky Driver

One day, out of the blue, a cab driver domiciled nearby was invited by a Tokyo TV station to be the street food cognoscente in a daytime docu-series on eateries of the local working folk. How he was selected for this distinction is a mystery, but all agreed he was perfect for the role. When asked to produce his list of five essential food stops he did so with little hesitation, and one of them was – you guessed it – Ramen Benkei.

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Under Hot Lights

There’s no need to describe in detail the events that followed. I won’t recount how, under a hot strobe, with the videocam rolling, the cabbie hunched over a bowl of his favorite miso chashumen, sucking down that thick miasma of crushed garlic, diced green onions, sliced pork and egg noodles, with the facedown determination of a sumo rikishi. Grunting like a caveman to his superfluous interlocutor, he remained focused on the bowl until, with his last slurp, he pushed it away with both hands, belched and calmly wiped the sweat from his brow.

The Buzz

One day, many weeks later, in this land where everyone refuses to pay their hapless NHK fee collector a plastic penny, but still watches public TV anyway, a gaggle of utter strangers coalesced on the sidewalk outside that lonely ramen shop; street traffic slowed and clotted, with rubbernecking, and even some honking; and a row of bicycles grew like a helter-skelter, metal hedge upon the curb.

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The Boom

As days passed this phenomenon, instead of diminishing, only intensified. Within a fortnight, Ramen Benkei had swarms of hungry bodies cramming its counter from noon to night. Word of mouth had kicked in. It was catapulted from serving a couple dozen customers a day to feeding hundreds and hundreds. (The occasional female was even sighted in the crowd!) Pundits claim that this was the exact moment when Japan’s ramen “boom” was ignited; MSG stock tripled in value overnight.

Remembering a Loyal Customer

All this occurred some 33 years ago, just about the time the above-mentioned cabbie became my father-in-law. By then, the owners of Ramen Benkei were already sending him gifts of gratitude each summer and winter, something they have done without fail ever since, even as they have opened new locations in old Tokyo. In fact, after being implored countless times to desist from their kindness – and even after learning that the cabbie had departed for that eternal noodle stand in the sky – they continue to honor their benefactor’s widow with delicious o-chugen and o-seibo every year.

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Where It’s At

Benkei has locations in Horikiri, Asakusa and Monzennakacho.   Only downtown Tokyo is the real deal! Everything west of Shinbashi is fake news! So slip into your geta, and go get some now!

Historical Note:

It is said that the warrior monk Musashibo Benkei singlehandedly battled a force of three hundred attackers while defending his master, Yoshitsune Minamoto. Refusing to retreat, he made a stand on a narrow bridge, and fought to the death, annihilating great numbers of attackers while Yoshitsune calmly committed ritual seppuku.

In the proper posture of a true noodleman, Benkei died standing up.

This all happened a long time ago, before the invention of the ramen shop, but it must never be forgotten.

The Kumano Magaibutsu

Japanese History in Stone

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I don’t recall when I first became enamored with the shape and beauty of stone, but it hasn’t been too many years since my love of things lithic morphed into a fascination with images carved upon natural rock surfaces. I’m referring specifically to Japan’s stone reliefs, images of Buddhist deities etched into cliffs or hollowed out rock outcroppings. These immoveable renderings are referred to as magaibutsu, in contradistinction to free-standing stone statues of Buddhas, commonly called sekibutsu.

 

While natural rock reliefs are found throughout Japan, the most famous magaibutsu are at Usuki, in southern Oita prefecture, and it is in this region of the country that one finds many of the finest old reliefs. When I say “old” I am referring to works of the late Heian (794–1185) or early Kamakura (1185­­–1333) times, the beginning of long centuries of feudalism, when common Japanese folk began to seek refuge from war, calamity and uncertainty in the Buddhist faith.

 

While there is much speculation about the reasons for the preponderance of reliefs in Oita prefecture, here I’d like to draw your attention to just one impressive work, one of the largest and oldest in Japan, which is located in the northern part of this scenic prefecture. It is the famous Kumano magaibutsu, on the rural Kunizaki peninsula. For anyone smitten with an interest in such relics, this one is a “must see.”

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The Kumano site is actually two large faces carved into a high rock precipice, accessible only after ascending several hundred stone steps from the parking lot of Taizou-ji Temple. Though very little is known about who or why most of the old reliefs were commissioned, about this one the temple history clearly states: “A monk went up to Kishu to receive the authorization of Kumano (to carve the image), and upon returning completed the work in four or five years.” The work referred to is the eight-meter tall, sword-brandishing Immovable One (Fudou Myo-ou); the other image, the face of the Dainichi Buddha, was carved an estimated one to two hundred years later.

Perhaps at this point you are asking “so what?” Well, not only is this relic designated a Significant Cultural Asset of Japan, with a distinct connection to the ancient Kumano tradition; it is located in a serene glade, high up in an old-growth forest, offering a lovely spot for mediation. Moreover, it is historically associated with nearby Usa Hachiman-gu Shrine (which was burned down in the last years of the Gempei War, just around the time the carving was initiated), and is located at Taizouji Temple, where Japan’s native Shugendo faith, which combines the spiritualism of Shinto with the core tenets of Buddhism, is still practiced today.

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That’s a lot to think about, I know, and then there’s this: While viewed straight on, the expression on the Immoveable One’s face is a seemingly impossible curl of the lips, and clearly a smirk of resignation, or even disdain. Yet when viewed sidelong, from the final stone steps leading up to the shrine above, it is something quite different.  From this vantage the expression becomes a gentle smile of patience and understanding.

 

What a fine labor of love that monk left for future generations to ponder and enjoy!

The Booksellers of Jimbocho

Tokyo’s Bookworm Wonderland

Many years ago, when I took my first job in Tokyo, at the publishing house of Graphic-sha, in Kudan-kita, I discovered a place that I would wander through during my lunch hours, on free weekends, and at any opportunity I’ve had in the ensuing thirty-five years of my life. That place is Jimbocho, along nearby Yasukuni Boulevard, and it is home to one of the world’s great agglutinations of second-hand bookstores.

In case you weren’t aware, the Japanese love the printed word. Gutenberg may have invented the moveable type, but the Japanese invented the phonebook-thick manga comic book, and that’s just a peculiar example of their capacity to devise, produce and consume any and all types of printed matter. Equally important, they are one of the great collector cultures of the world. Their monomania includes an obsession with books, in both Japanese and the better-known Western languages.

Where the printed word has taken refuge

While we can surely bewail the iPhone and its ilk for destroying humanity’s ability to turn and read pages of bound text, there’s still some hope for the venerable book. Like a refugee camp from the war on literacy, Jimbocho is a haven where the printed word has taken shelter. From art collections and historical tomes to old glossy magazines, specialized dictionaries, children’s books and those classic novels you crave to reread, they’re all likely to be found somewhere in this haphazard paradise of printed matter.

The Jimbocho tagline claims that it is the world’s biggest shopping town for books. I’ve never been to Timbuktu, but I’m inclined to accept this claim as fact. Since there are literally hundreds of small and large booksellers here, the neighborhood even offers its own information center. This is located on Suzuran-dori, the street parallel to the boulevard, just behind Kitaguchi Bookstore. Seek it out with your questions about where to go for what. You’ll be handed a map of all the local bookstores, and the clerk will circle the places to begin your search.

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This district also offers a plethora of shops where one can buy genuine Ukiyoe prints and Japanese art, and a few used record stores, too, including Fuji Records (located on the ninth floor of the Kanda Kosho Center, a few doors up from Kitazawa Bookstore) which is equipped with turntables that spin any speed of vinyl, even their old 78s. For those with a thirst for modern bookstore amenities, there is Tokyodo (also on Suzuran-dori) which offers a coffee bar and tables where you can sit and read.

Then again, if someone just doesn’t believe in owning anything as unwieldy as a book (perhaps because he imagines that the entirety of human knowledge has already been uploaded to the internet) he can haul his dead Japanese grandpa’s boxed-up library here to sell. The book dealers will give him fair value.   (So please don’t leave those books piled up in the garage; the termites always eat the best ones first.)

For the bibliophile prospecting for something rare a few trips to Jimbocho might be required. Even with the map – which as far as I know is only printed in Japanese – there’s no way of knowing exactly where that gem you seek is hidden. The careworn fellow at the back of any store can usually point you in the right direction, so try asking. Otherwise, explore the stacks, climb the narrow stairwells, and ride the rickety elevators up and down until you chance upon it, and Archimedes whispers in your ear – Eureka!

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The Solace of Unnojuku

Before I pitch a visit to this gem of architectural history, a word of caution; if you like throngs of sightseers, busy souvenir traps and long, clamorous lines outside noodle and ice cream shops, Unnojuku is not the day trip for you. This old post town in Nagano Prefecture is a portal to the past, and can look rather like a ghost town on a chilly, mid-winter’s day. The food here is for thought, and what you take away for memory and the imagination.

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The Old North Road

Ninety minutes or so from Tokyo on the Hokuriku Shinkansen, and a short taxi ride from Ueda Station (or a twenty-five minute walk along the free-flowing Chikuma River) Unnojuku was a wayfarers’ stop and sericulture (silkworm raising) center in Edo and Meiji times. Today this old streetscape, with dozens of well-preserved structures hundreds of years old, is designated as one of Japan’s National Conservation Areas.

In fact, the history of this location dates to the Heian and Kamakura periods, when the surrounding lands were controlled by the Unno clan. Centuries later, when Japan was united under the Tokugawa government (1600-1868), Unnojuku was born (“juku” meaning a place to stay, or lodge.) Ideally situated on the North Road, which was used for the transport of gold from Sado Island to Edo, and by pilgrims traveling to and from ancient Zenko-ji Temple, its prominence and wealth quickly grew.

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Decorative and Functional Design

Some of the architectural styles preserved here, such as the ornamental projecting shoulders (sode udatsu) on the large inns, are as striking as any to be found in Japan, and a sign of the prosperity the town enjoyed. Along either side of the stone brook one sees intricate, Unno-style latticework, decorative tile facades, basic projecting shoulders (hon udatsu, which served to hinder the spread of fire), heavy beam construction and the fine finishing work so typical of this period of Japanese town architecture.

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Adapting to Change

Because the area turned to sericulture in the Meiji era (when traffic on the highway fell off due to the construction of railroads) numerous structures were modified with secondary, ventilated (kinuki) roofs, and other features unique to the keeping of silkworms. It is this variety of architectural specimens from the middle Edo period to the early Meiji era, and the combination of functional and decorative elements, that make Unnojuku such an invaluable cultural asset. No wonder it is included in Japan’s “One Hundred Best Roads” collection.

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What to Expect

On a quiet weekday you may find that just about everything along the street is closed. If you prefer music and dancing, come for the “Fureai” festival in late November, when characters in period garb fill the streets. In warm months, when the willows are green and the flowers are blossoming, the soba and coffee shops will be open, allowing you to relax inside, sip tea and nibble sweet manju, while observing passers bye like a wealthy Japanese traveler of long ago.

Shiratori Shrine, a vestige of the days when the legendary warrior Minamoto Yoshinaka (1154 – 1184) came here to muster forces against the Taira, stands at the south end of the street. Here a massive Zulkova tree, over seven hundred years old, shades a small fountain and the surrounding grounds. If old Japanese architecture isn’t your thing, you might want to have a look at this tree, and ponder all that it has witnessed over the centuries.

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